The Columbia Fire Department said a passerby located an individual who had burns on more than 20% of his body on Wednesday afternoon.
The burn victim, whose identity was not immediately released, was found in the 1200 block of School Street just before 2 p.m.
Captain Mike Hudson told Nashville's News 2 the victim was airlifted to Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville.
An investigation continues into the incident.
No additional information was released.